In organic chemistry, functional groups are the substituent atoms or groups of atoms that are attached to particular molecules. These substituents are part of the molecule similar to another chemical compound because of chemical reactions.

Oxide is a broad and essential group of chemical compounds where an element is mixed with oxygen. Except for the lighter inert gases such as neon helium, argon, and krypton, oxygen generates at least one binary oxide with each element. In compounds with oxygen, both nonmetals and metals can reach their highest oxidation states. Alkali and alkaline earth metals and transition metals form ionic oxides.

Metal oxides

Metal oxides include crystalline solids containing a metal cation and an oxide anion. Normally, to produce salts, they interact with acid and interact with water to produce a base. From the alkali and alkaline earth metals, three distinct kinds of binary oxygen compounds are made.

(1) Oxides, comprising oxide ions (O-2)

(2) peroxides, comprising peroxide ions, O-22

(3) Superoxides, comprising superoxide ions, O2

Oxide peroxides and superoxides are formed by alkali metals that have a +1 oxidation state. Only oxides and peroxides are produced from the alkaline earth metals. All the alkali metal oxides can be produced by heating the corresponding metal nitrate with the elemental metal.

Non-metal oxides

With oxygen, all non – metals form covalent oxides that interact with water to produce acids or to produce salts with bases. The majority of non-metal oxides are acidic and make oxyacids, forming hydronium ions in an aqueous solution. There are mainly two points that characterize acidic oxide activity.

  1. Acid anhydrides are classified as oxides such as SO3 (sulphur trioxide) and N2O5 (dinitrogen pentoxide) where a non-metal shows one of its typical oxidation states. These oxides respond to the formation of oxyacids with water, without changing the oxidation states of the non-metal.
  2. Oxides, like nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and chlorine dioxide (ClO2), wherein the metal does not have one of its common oxidation states, still react with water.

Organic compounds combine with oxygen or other oxidizing agents to generate oxides. Phosphines, amines and sulphides ultimately generate phosphine oxides, amine oxides and sulfoxides, wherein the atom of oxygen is covalently bound to the atom of nitrogen, phosphorus, or sulphur.

Aluminium oxide

Alumina or aluminium oxide is a white or almost colourless crystalline product of synthetically formed aluminium oxide (Al2O3), used as a starting material for smelting aluminium metals. It also serves as the source material for a wide variety of alternative ceramic materials and active substances for reagents for chemical processing.


Bauxite, an ore found naturally and comprises varying quantities of hydrous aluminium oxides, and it is produced from alumina. Free Al2O3 occurs naturally as the mineral corundum, ruby sapphire and its gemstone type. Many people will be confused about Is Alumina and Aluminium oxide the same?. By inserting zirconia particles or silicon-carbide whiskers, alumina’s hardness can be increased, making it ideal for industrial cutting instruments. Often, by incorporating tiny quantities of magnesia, the usually opaque substance can be turned transparent. In high-pressure sodium-vapour street lamps, transparent alumina is used as the gas tank.


In organic chemistry, oxides are a significant concept. Much of the Earth’s surface consists of solid oxides, the product of oxygen oxidizing elements in air or water. An oxide coating also develops with pure elements.